Abdominal and GastrointestinalTim Montrief -
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a commonly performed procedure in the United States, with over 700,000 ERCPs performed annually.1,2 Common indications include choledocholithiasis, biliary stone removal, biliary stenting, the diagnosis and management of biliary and pancreatic neoplasms, and management of sphincter dysfunction. 3,4 ERCP is performed by a gastroenterologist who passes an endoscope through the oropharynx, esophagus and stomach into the duodenum, insufflating...
Cryptococcal Meningitis Background and Pathophysiology Cryptococcal meningitis is the most common cause of fungal meningitis and the most common cause of extrapulmonary cryptococcosis worldwide with over 220,000 cases per year and 181,000 deaths per year.1-5 In the United States alone, there are approximately 3,000 cases per year of cryptococcal meningitis, with 80% of those in occurring in HIV+...
Background of Fournier's Gangrene Fournier's gangrene includes any necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs) involving the perineal, perianal, and genital area.1,2 Fournier's gangrene has an incidence of 1.6 per 100,000 men in the United States, which peaks between the ages of 50 and 79 years (3.3 per 100,000) with the highest rates occurring in the...
The catastrophic neurologic emergency remains one of the most challenging presentations encountered by emergency physicians. Physicians routinely depend on advanced imaging modalities such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to further investigate for potential catastrophic diagnoses. Acquiring these tests introduces the risks of transport as well as delays in managing time-sensitive neurologic processes.1-4 Luckily, a more immediate, non-invasive...
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